English Punctuations

English PunctuationsEnglish Punctuation | Rifai's Blog. Hi Guys, Do you know What the punctuations are? What are they?
Ok, I wanna share you about the punctuations

The Punctuations are:
     a)    End Marks : ( . ), ( ? ), ( ! )
     b)    Commas ( , )
     c)    Semicolons ( ; )
     d)    Colons ( : )
     e)    Italic or Underline ( word or word )
     f)    Quotation marks ( “…” )
     g)    Apostrophes ( ‘ )
     h)    Hyphens ( - )
     i)     Dash ( -- )
     j)     Omission marks (…)

A.   End Marks: (.), (?), (!)
The term end marks refers to punctuation which appears at the end of sentences. They are periods (.), question marks (?), and exclamation (!).
1.  A statement is followed by a period.
Pizza is my favorite food.
2.  A question is followed by a question mark.
What time is it ?
3.  An exclamation is followed by an exclamation point.
How clever you are !
4.  An abbreviation is followed by a period.
Calif.                      Oct.
Oct.                        P.m.

B.   Commas ( , )
1.  Use a comma to separate single word in a series
December, January, and February are summer months in the Southern Hemisphere.
2.  Use a comma to separate verbs in a series
The delegates nominated one candidate, voted, and installed her in an office.
3.  Use a comma to separate phrases in a series
There were spots at the top, at the sides, and on the bottom.
4.  Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun
·       Jupiter is a large, strange planet.
·       David Beckham played a powerful, brilliant game.
5.  Use a comma before and, but, or, nor, for, and yet when they join parts of a compound sentences
·       Betty  offered to get the tickets, and I accepted gratefully.
·       They had been working very hard, but they didn’t seem especially tired.
6.  Use a comma to set of expression that interrupt the sentence.
Our neighbor, Gita Gutawa, is a good singer.

C.   Semicolons ( ; )
1.  Use a semicolon between the parts of a compound sentence if they are not joined by and, but, or, nor, for, and yet
After school I went to the play station; then I studied in my room for an hour.
2.  A semicolon may be needed to separate the parts of a compound sentence if they are commas within the parts
I wrote to Ann, Beth, and Meg; and Jean notified Terry and Sue.

D.   Colons ( : )
A colon is a punctuation mark that usually signals that something is to follow. The colon is never used directly after a verb or a preposition.
1.  Use a colon before list of items, especially after expression like as follows and the following
A search showed that Jack’s pocket contain the following: a knife, half an apple, a piece of gum, and a bottle of mineral water.
2.  Use a colon between the hour and the minute when you write the time
8:30 a.m.                         10:30 p.m.
3.  Use a colon after a salutation of a business letter
Dear Sir:                          Dear Mrs. :

E.   Italic or Underline ( word or word )
1.  Use Italic or underline for titles of books, periodicals, works of art, ships, and so on.
Harry Potter is my favorite novel.
One of most famous movies ever made is Ketika Cinta Bertasbih.

F.    Quotation marks ( “…” )
When a person’s exact words are used in writing, it is customary too use quotation marks to show where the question begins and end.
1.  Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation
“When the bell rings,“ said the teacher, “leave the class quietly.“
2.  A direct quotation begins with a capital letter
Maria said, “The frame isn’t strong enough.“
3.  When a quoted sentence is divided into two parts by an interrupting expression ( he said, mother said, and replied the principal ), the second part begins with a small letter.
“The time has come, “ insisted the speaker, “to improve our education program.“
4.  A direct quotation is set off from the rest of the sentence by commas.
I asked, “What’s your name? “
5.  A period or a comma following a quotation should be place inside the closing quotation marks
The man replied, “I’m ready.”

G.   Apostrophes ( ‘ )
The Apostrophes is used:
(1)  to show ownership or relationship,
(2)  to show where letters have been omitted in a contraction, and
(3)  to form the plurals or number s and letters.
1.  The possessive case
The possessive case of  a word shows ownership or relationship
a.  To form the possessive case of a singular noun, add an apostrophe and an s.
·       John’s desk.
·       A boy’s cap.
·       The baby’s toy.
·       Student’s book.
b.  To form the possessive case of a plural noun not ending in s, add an apostrophe and an s.
·       Mice’s tracks.
·       Children’s choir.
c.   To form the possessive case of a plural noun ending in s, add only the apostrophe.
·       Cats’ basket
·       The Carsons’ bungalow
2.  Contraction
A contraction is a word made by combining two words and omitting some letters. An apostrophes take the place of the letters that are left out.
·       There is     : there’s
·       We are      : we’re
·       They have  : they’ve
·       Is not        : isn’t
When n’t is added to  shall, will, or can, the spelling of the verb changes.
·       Shall not    : shan’t
·       Will not      : won’t
·       Can not     : can’t

H.   Hyphens ( - )
The hypens is used :
(1)  to indicated that a word has been broken at the end of a line, and
(2)  to show that two or more words are being used together as one.
If there is not room for a whole word at the end of the line, you may divide it with a hyphens.
Dividing words at the end of a line, however, should be avoided as much as possible.
1.    Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line
In my opinion, this salad needs cu-cumber.
2.    Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and with fractions used as adjectives
There are twenty-nine days in February.

I.    Dash ( -- )
The function of dash is to make a certain piece of information more stressful or more dramatic, as in :
·       Don’t forget—once again do not forget—to post the letter today.
·       We—the students of English Department—practice speaking intensively.
·       The criminals robbed the bank—all the money was taken.
A dash is also used to introduce additional details in order to make a previous piece of information clearer or more vivid. In this case, dash is similar to that is, viz or namely.
·       Indonesian lies between two oceans—the Pacific and the Indian Oceans.
·       The kangaroo—the native animal of Australia—can jump extremely quickly.
·       She plans to go to Singkep –a small island in Riau Province.
This mark may be used to show alternatives; it is often replaced by the word “or”.
·       The lecturer wrote in his grammar book that the verb to depend can be followed by the preposition upon/on.
·       To begin a formal letter, we may write Dear Sir/Madam if we do not know who the receiver is.
·       The three dots might represent something irrelevant or necessity.

J.    Omission Marks (…)
·       “Language … a set of rules … for communication,“ the definition read.
·       “The most important part of speech is verb … “ Hornsby said.
·       “ … two kinds of complements, namely, the subject complement and the object complement.” They concluded.

OK Guys, thoose are All about English Punctuations. May be Usefull.

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